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HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human – It is No More A Threat

HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human – It is No More A Threat  

 

HIV and its history-  

A study shows that in Botswana, where HIV has evolved to adapt to HLA-B57 more than in South Africa, patients no longer benefit from this gene’s protective effect.

However, the team’s data show that the cost of this adaptation to HIV is that its ability to replicate is significantly reduced, therefore making the virus less virulent.

The authors show that viral adaptation to protective gene variants, such as HLA-B57, is driving down the virulence of transmitted HIV and is thereby contributing to HIV elimination.

In the second part of the study the authors examined the impact of ART on HIV virulence. They developed a mathematical model, which concluded that selective treatment of people with low CD4 counts will accelerate the evolution of HIV variants with a weaker ability to replicate.

 

HIV genome-

 HIV-1 is composed of two copies of noncovalently linked, unspliced, positive-sense single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid composed of the viral protein p24, typical of lentiviruses . The RNA component is 9749 nucleotides long . Viral structural proteins are encoded by long ORFs 

How HIV develops AIDS- HIV will start to enter in CD4 Cells of human and replicate during the process they harm the host CD4 cell which is the root for our acquired immunity. This will lead to destruction of acquired immunity. Thus HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which are white blood cells crucial to maintaining the function of the human immune system. As HIV attacks these cells, the person infected with the virus is less equipped to fight off infection and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS.

 

 

HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human – It is No More A Threat 

     Studies says YES-

 

How HIV losing its ability and edge now- 

 One of the world’s most feared virus is losing its sting. HIV is evolving to become less deadly and less infectious, according to a major scientific study led by British scientists.

The team at the University of Oxford has shown that it was taking longer for HIV infection to cause AIDS.

The rapid evolution of HIV, which has allowed the virus to develop resistance to patients’ natural immunity is at the same time slowing the virus’s ability to cause AIDS.

The study also indicates that people infected by HIV are likely to progress to AIDS more slowly — in other words the virus becomes less virulent — because of widespread access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both processes make an important contribution to the overall goal of the control and eradication of the HIV epidemic.

Scientists said: “Twenty years ago the time to AIDS was 10 years, but in the last 10 years in Botswana that might have increased to 12.5 years. One might imagine as time extends this could stretch further and further and in the future people being asymptomatic for decades.”

In 2013, there were a total of 35 million people living with HIV worldwide according to the World Health Organization.

The study was led by researchers at the University of Oxford, along with scientists from South Africa, Canada, Tokyo, Harvard University and Microsoft Research.

Lead scientist Professor Phillip Goulder from the University of Oxford, said: “This research highlights the fact that HIV adaptation to the most effective immune responses we can make against it comes at a significant cost to its ability to replicate. Anything we can do to increase the pressure on HIV in this way may allow scientists to reduce the destructive power of HIV over time.”

HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human - It is No More A Threat

HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human – It is No More A Threat

 

Central to this investigation are proteins in our blood called the human leukocyte antigens (HLA), which enable the immune system to differentiate between the human body’s proteins and the proteins of pathogens. People with a gene that expresses a particular HLA protein called HLA-B57, are known to benefit from a protective effect to HIV.

Infected patients with the HLA-B57 gene progress more slowly than others do usually to AIDS.

This study showed that in Botswana, where HIV has evolved to adapt to HLA-B57 more than in South Africa, patients no longer benefit from this gene’s protective effect.

However, the team’s data show that the cost of this adaptation to HIV is that its ability to replicate is significantly reduced, therefore making the virus less virulent.

The authors show that viral adaptation to protective gene variants, such as HLA-B57, is driving down the virulence of transmitted HIV and is thereby contributing to HIV elimination.

In the second part of the study the authors examined the impact of ART on HIV virulence. They developed a mathematical model, which concluded that selective treatment of people with low CD4 counts will accelerate the evolution of HIV variants with a weaker ability to replicate.

 

HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human – It is No More A Threat 

               More studies to come

 

For the study, Goulder and colleagues compared HIV infection in two groups of women in Botswana and South Africa.

HIV had set its foot in Botswana much before South Africa. Results showed that the HIV had lost its ability to replicate in Botswana compared to in South Africa. “It is quite striking. You can see the ability to replicate is 10% lower in Botswana than South Africa and that’s quite exciting,” Prof Goulder told the BBC News website. “The virus is slowing down in its ability to cause disease and that will help contribute to elimination.”

Researchers found that the virus has lost its ability to replicate and become weak while adapting to the immune system. This process has turned the HIV into a less dangerous form, reducing its ability to cause AIDS, BBC reported.

“[Then] the virus is trapped between a rock and hard place, it can get flattened or make a change to survive and if it has to change then it will come with a cost,” Prof Philip Goulder, from the

Additionally, the study also found that anti-retroviral drugs were also highly effective in turning HIV mild. The drugs facilitated this by attacking the aggressive forms of HIV than the milder one.

The authors expected that this evolution will one day help eradicate the disease . “HIV adaptation to the most effective immune responses we can make against it comes at a significant cost to its ability to replicate,” Goulder told Livemint. “Anything we can do to increase the pressure on HIV in this way may allow scientists to reduce the destructive power of HIV over time.”

Till date, more than 60 strains of HIV-1 have been identified. An HIV infection normally causes AIDS within 10 years from the time of infection. Nearly 35 million people were affected with HIV infection in 2013. The same year, about 2.1 million new cases and 1.5 million AIDS-related deaths have been reported.

 

HIV is evolving and becoming far less deadly, experts have revealed.

More than 35 million people around the world are infected with the virus.

But in a major development described as “exciting”, scientists have found the virus is being “watered down” as it adapts to our immune system.

They said it was now taking much longer for HIV to cause Aids . Some have even suggested it could eventually become “almost harmless”.

The Oxford University experts also found that widespread access to anti-retroviral drugs was slowing HIV’s progress to Aids.

More than 2,000 women with HIV in South Africa and Botswana took part in the Oxford study.

Scientists studied a gene in the human body that gives patients some protection against the effects of HIV.

In Botswana, the virus has adapted to resist that gene’s immunity. But this evolution has led to a reduced ability to replicate, making HIV less infectious and meaning it takes longer to cause Aids.

Lead scientist Prof Phillip Goulder, of the University of Oxford, said: “This research highlights the fact that HIV adaptation to the most effective immune responses we can make against it comes at a significant cost to its ability to replicate.

He added: “It is quite striking. You can see the ability to replicate is 10% lower in Botswana than South Africa and that’s quite exciting.

“We are observing evolution happening in front of us and it is surprising how quickly the process is happening. The virus is slowing down in its ability to cause disease and that will help contribute to elimination.

The study was published in journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Prof Jonathan Ball, a virologist at the University of Nottingham, said: “If the trend continues then we might see the global picture change – a longer disease causing much less transmission.

“In theory, if we were to let HIV run its course then we would see a human population emerge that was more resistant to the virus than we collectively are today – HIV infection would eventually become almost harmless.

“Such events have probably happened throughout history, but we are talking very large timescales.”

But Prof Andrew Freedman, a reader in infectious diseases at Cardiff University, warned that HIV was “an awfully long way” from becoming harmless and “other events will supersede that including wider access to treatment and eventually the development of a cure”.

Dr Michael Brady, medical director at Terrence Higgins Trust, said: “This study gives an interesting insight into how viruses adapt to their environment and evolve over time. However, if left untreated HIV still leads to AIDS and death.

“Effective drug treatments mean people living with HIV today can have a near normal life expectancy and be non-infectious to others. Our efforts should remain focused on encouraging the quarter of people with HIV in the UK who remain undiagnosed to come forward for testing, and ensuring they have access to treatment and care as early as possible.”

Tag-  HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human – It is No More A Threat 

Discussion

6 Responses to “HIV is losing its ability to Cause AIDS in Human – It is No More A Threat”

  1. It is nice to hear that.

    Posted by Neethu Akther | March 18, 2015, 9:34 am
  2. HIV is the very dangerous disease, before we have no medicine in this diseases but now medicines are available means we win in this virus it is very happy to hear

    Posted by Samay Mai | April 9, 2015, 10:29 am
  3. Is it workout ? because this virus will visible in after 10 years, that time almost body will lost immunity power so it is worth or not.

    Posted by Mary Roy | April 13, 2015, 11:04 am
  4. Happy to here that, because a huge number of persons have HIV.

    Posted by Nrupama Rajiv | April 17, 2015, 10:36 am
  5. HIV is a dangerous deceases. So is it workout or note

    Posted by Geo Gurudath | April 17, 2015, 10:44 am
  6. HIV is a dangerous diseases, if there any medicine means it is nice to here that.

    Posted by Nirupama Roy | April 21, 2015, 7:47 am

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